Math 7C - Scope and Sequence
7.1 Scale Drawings Current Unit
In this unit, students learn to understand and use the terms “scaled copy,” “to scale,” “scale factor,” “scale drawing,” and “scale,” and recognize when two pictures or plane figures are or are not scaled copies of each other. They use tables to reason about measurements in scaled copies, and recognize that angle measures are preserved in scaled copies, but lengths are scaled by a scale factor and areas by the square of the scale factor. They make, interpret, and reason about scale drawings. These include maps and floor plans that have scales with and without units.
7.2 Introducing Proportional Relationships
In this unit, students learn to understand and use the terms “proportional,” “constant of proportionality,” and “proportional relationship,” and recognize when a relationship is or is not proportional. They represent proportional relationships with tables, equations, and graphs. Students use these terms and representations in reasoning about situations that involve constant speed, unit pricing, and measurement conversions.
7.3 Measuring Circles
In this unit, students learn to understand and use the term “circle” to mean the set of points that are equally distant from a point called the “center.” They gain an understanding of why the circumference of a circle is proportional to its diameter, with constant of proportionality π. They see informal derivations of the fact that the area of a circle is equal to π times the square of its radius. Students use the relationships of circumference, radius, diameter, and area of a circle to find lengths and areas, expressing these in terms of π or using appropriate approximations of π to express them numerically.
7.4 Proportional Relationships and Percentages
In this unit, students use ratios, scale factors, unit rates (also called constants of proportionality), and proportional relationships to solve multi-step, real-world problems that involve fractions and percentages. They use long division to write fractions presented in the form a/b as decimals, including those with repeating decimals They learn to understand and use the terms “repeating decimal,” “terminating decimal,” “percent increase,” “percent decrease,” “percent error,” and “measurement error.” They represent amounts and corresponding percent rates with double number line diagrams and tables. They use these terms and representations in reasoning about situations involving sales taxes, tips, markdowns, markups, sales commissions, interest, depreciation, and scaling a picture. Students use equations to represent proportional relationships in which the constant of proportionality arises from a percentage, e.g., relationship between price paid and amount of sales tax paid.
7.5 Rational Number Arithmetic
In this unit, students interpret signed numbers in contexts (e.g., temperature, elevation, deposit and withdrawal, position, direction, speed and velocity, percent change) together with their sums, differences, products, and quotients. (“Signed numbers” include all rational numbers, written as decimals or in the form a/b.) Students use tables and number line diagrams to represent sums and differences of signed numbers or changes in quantities represented by signed numbers such as temperature or elevation, becoming more fluent in writing different numerical addition and subtraction equations that express the same relationship. They compute sums and differences of signed numbers. They plot points in the plane with signed number coordinates, representing and interpreting sums and differences of coordinates. They view situations in which objects are traveling at constant speed (familiar from previous units) as proportional relationships. For these situations, students use multiplication equations to represent changes in position on number line diagrams or distance traveled, and interpret positive and negative velocities in context. They become more fluent in writing different numerical multiplication and division equations for the same relationship. Students extend their use of the “next to” notation (which they used in expressions such as 5x and 6(3+2) in grade 6) to include negative numbers and products of numbers, e.g., writing -5x and (-5)(-10) rather than (-5)⋅(x) and (-5)⋅(-10). They extend their use of the fraction bar to include variables as well as numbers, writing -8.5÷x as well as -8.5/x.
7.6 Expressions, Equations, and Inequalities
In this unit, students solve equations of the forms px+q=r and p(x+q)=r where p, q, and r are rational numbers. They draw, interpret, and write equations in one variable for balanced “hanger diagrams,” and write expressions for sequences of instructions, e.g., “number puzzles.” They use tape diagrams together with equations to represent situations with one unknown quantity. They learn algebraic methods for solving equations. Students solve linear inequalities in one variable and represent their solutions on the number line. They understand and use the terms “less than or equal to” and “greater than or equal to,” and the corresponding symbols. They generate expressions that are equivalent to a given numerical or linear expression. Students formulate and solve linear equations and inequalities that represent real-world situations
7.7 Angles, Triangles, and Prisms
In this unit, students investigate whether sets of angle and side length measurements determine unique triangles or multiple triangles, or fail to determine triangles. Students also study and apply angle relationships, learning to understand and use the terms “complementary,” “supplementary,” “vertical angles,” and “unique.” The work gives them practice working with rational numbers and equations for angle relationships. Students analyze and describe cross-sections of prisms, pyramids, and polyhedra. They understand and use the formula for the volume of a right rectangular prism, and solve problems involving area, surface area, and volume.
7.8 Probability and Sampling
In this unit, students understand and use the terms “event,” “sample space,” “outcome,” “chance experiment,” “probability,” “simulation,” “random,” “sample,” “random sample,” “representative sample,” “overrepresented,” “underrepresented,” “population,” and “proportion.” They design and use simulations to estimate probabilities of outcomes of chance experiments and understand the probability of an outcome as its long-run relative frequency. They represent sample spaces (that is, all possible outcomes of a chance experiment) in tables and tree diagrams and as lists. They calculate the number of outcomes in a given sample space to find the probability of a given event. They consider the strengths and weaknesses of different methods for obtaining a representative sample from a given population. They generate samples from a given population, e.g., by drawing numbered papers from a bag and recording the numbers, and examine the distributions of the samples, comparing these to the distribution of the population. They compare two populations by comparing samples from each population.
7.9 Putting it all Together
In this unit, students use concepts and skills from previous units to solve three groups of problems. In calculating or estimating quantities associated with running a restaurant, e.g., number of calories in one serving of a recipe, expected number of customers served per day, or floor space, they use their knowledge of proportional relationships, interpreting survey findings, and scale drawings. In estimating quantities such as age in hours and minutes or number of times their hearts have beaten, they use measurement conversions and consider accuracy of their estimates. Estimation of area and volume measurements from length measurements introduces considerations of measurement error. In designing a five-kilometer race course for their school, students use their knowledge of measurement and scale drawing. They select appropriate tools and methods for measuring their school campus, build a trundle wheel and use it to make measurements, make a scale drawing of the course on a map or a satellite image of the school grounds, and describe the number of laps, start, and finish of the race.